Lyme Disease

Tick species that transmit Lyme Disease: Black-legged tick (Deer tick), western black-legged tick

What is Lyme Disease?

img-Tick img-Lpic1 thumbLonestar

Click here for pictures of deer ticks

Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a type of bacterium called a spirochete (pronounced spy-ro-keet) that is carried by deer ticks. An infected tick can transmit the spirochete to the humans and animals it bites. Untreated, the bacterium travels through the bloodstream, establishes itself in various body tissues, and can cause a number of symptoms, some of which are severe.

LD manifests itself as a multisystem inflammatory disease that affects the skin in its early, localized stage, and spreads to the joints, nervous system and, to a lesser extent, other organ systems in its later,
disseminated stages. If diagnosed and treated early with antibiotics, LD is almost always readily cured. Generally, LD in its later stages can also be treated effectively, but because the rate of disease progression and individual response to treatment varies from one patient to the next, some patients may have symptoms that linger for months or even years following treatment. In rare instances, LD causes permanent damage.

Although LD is now the most common arthropod-borne illness in the U.S. (more than 150,000 cases have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] since 1982), its diagnosis and treatment can be challenging for clinicians due to its diverse manifestations and the limitations of currently available serological (blood) tests.

The prevalence of LD in the northeast and upper mid-west is due to the presence of large numbers of the deer tick’s preferred hosts – white-footed mice and deer – and their proximity to humans. White-footed mice serve as the principal “reservoirs of infection” on which many larval and nymphal (juvenile) ticks feed and become infected with the LD spirochete. An infected tick can then transmit infection the next time it feeds on another host (e.g., an unsuspecting human).

Borrelia burgdorferi

The LD spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, infects other species of ticks but is known to be transmitted to humans and other animals only by the deer tick (also known as the black-legged tick) and the related Western black-legged tick. Studies have shown that an infected tick normally cannot begin transmitting the spirochete until it has been attached to its host about 36-48 hours; the best line of defense against LD, therefore, is to examine yourself at least once daily and remove any ticks before they become engorged (swollen) with blood.

Generally, if you discover a deer tick attached to your skin that has not yet become engorged, it has not been there long enough to transmit the LD spirochete. Nevertheless, it is advisable to be alert in case any symptoms do appear; a red rash (especially surrounding the tick bite), flu-like symptoms, or joint pains in the first month following any deer tick bite could signal the onset of LD.

Manifestations of what we now call Lyme disease were first reported in medical literature in Europe in 1883. Over the years, various clinical signs of this illness have been noted as separate medical conditions: acrodermatitis, chronica atrophicans (ACA), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (LABC), erythema migrans (EM), and lymphocytic meningradiculitis (Bannwarth’s syndrome). However, these diverse manifestations were not recognized as indicators of a single infectious illness until 1975, when LD was described following an outbreak of apparent juvenile arthritis, preceded by a rash, among residents of Lyme, Connecticut.

Where is Lyme Disease Prevalent?

LD is spreading slowly along and inland from the upper east coast, as well as in the upper midwest. The mode of spread is not entirely clear and is probably due to a number of factors such as bird migration, mobility of deer and other large mammals, and infected ticks dropping off of pets as people travel around the country. It is also prevalent in northern California and Oregon coast, but there is little evidence of spread.

In order to assess LD risk you should know whether infected deer ticks are active in your area or in places you may visit. The population density and percentage of infected ticks that may transmit LD vary markedly from one region of the country to another. There is even great variation from county to county within a state and from area to area within a county. For example, less than 5% of adult ticks south of Maryland are infected with B. burgdorferi, while up to 50% are infected in hyperendemic areas (areas with a high tick infection rate) of the northeast. The tick infection rate in Pacific coastal states is between 2% and 4%.

U.S. Range Maps and Statistics

To view U.S. Range Maps and Statistics for Lyme disease, click here.


The spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdoferi, is transmitted to humans through a bite of a nymphal stage deer tick Ixodes scapularis (or Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast). The duration of tick attachment and feeding is a key factor in transmission. Proper identification of tick species and feeding duration aids in determining the probability of infection and the risk of developing Lyme disease.

Spirochete transmission poster: how long has that tick been feeding on you?

The early symptoms of LD can be mild and easily overlooked. People who are aware of the risk of LD in their communities and who do not ignore the sometimes subtle early symptoms are most likely to seek medical attention and treatment early enough to be assured of a full recovery.

The first symptom is usually an expanding rash (called erythema migrans, or EM, in medical terms) which is thought to occur in 80% to 90% of all LD cases. An EM rash generally has the following characteristics:

  • Usually (but not always) radiates from the site of the tickbite
  • Appears either as a solid red expanding rash or blotch, OR a central spot surrounded by clear skin that is in turn ringed by an expanding red rash (looks like a bull’s-eye)
  • Appears an average of 1 to 2 weeks (range = 3 to 30 days) after disease transmission
  • Has an average diameter of 5 to 6 inches
    (range = 2 inches to 2 feet)
  • Persists for about 3 to 5 weeks
  • May or may not be warm to the touch
  • Is usually not painful or itchy

EM rashes appearing on brown-skinned or sun-tanned patients may be more difficult to identify because of decreased contrast between light-skinned tones and the red rash. A dark, bruise-like appearance is more common on dark-skinned patients.

Ticks will attach anywhere on the body, but prefer body creases such as the armpit, groin, back of the knee, and nape of the neck; rashes will therefore often appear in (but are not restricted to) these areas. Please note that multiple rashes may, in some cases, appear elsewhere on the body sometime after the initial rash, or, in a few cases, in the absence of an initial rash.

Around the time the rash appears, other symptoms such as joint pains, chills, fever, and fatigue are common, but they may not seem serious enough to require medical attention. These symptoms may be brief, only to recur as a broader spectrum of symptoms as the disease progresses.

As the LD spirochete continues spreading through the body, a number of other symptoms including severe fatigue, a stiff, aching neck, and peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement such as tingling or numbness in the extremities or facial palsy (paralysis) can occur.

The more severe, potentially debilitating symptoms of later-stage LD may occur weeks, months, or, in a few cases, years after a tick bite. These can include severe headaches, painful arthritis and swelling of joints, cardiac abnormalities, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement leading to cognitive (mental) disorders.

The following is a checklist of common symptoms seen in various stages of LD:

Localized Early (Acute) Stage:

  • Solid red or bull’s-eye rash, usually at site of bite
  • Swelling of lymph glands near tick bite
  • Generalized achiness
  • Headache

Early Disseminated Stage:

  • Two or more rashes not at site of bite
  • Migrating pains in joints/tendons
  • Headache
  • Stiff, aching neck
  • Facial palsy (facial paralysis similar to Bell’s palsy)
  • Tingling or numbness in extremities
  • Multiple enlarged lymph glands
  • Abnormal pulse
  • Sore throat
  • Changes in vision
  • Fever of 100 to 102 F
  • Severe fatigue

Late Stage:

  • Arthritis (pain/swelling) of one or two large joints
  • Disabling neurological disorders (disorientation; confusion; dizziness; short-term memory loss; inability to concentrate, finish sentences or follow conversations; mental “fog”)
  • Numbness in arms/hands or legs/feet


If you think you have LD symptoms you should see your physician immediately. The EM rash, which may occur in up to 90% of the reported cases, is a specific feature of LD, and treatment should begin immediately.

Even in the absence of an EM rash, diagnosis of early LD should be made on the basis of symptoms and evidence of a tick bite, not blood tests, which can often give false results if performed in the first month after initial infection (later on, the tests are more reliable). If you live in an endemic area, have symptoms consistent with early LD and suspect recent exposure to a tick, present your suspicion to your doctor so that he or she may make a more informed diagnosis.

If early symptoms are undetected or ignored, you may develop more severe symptoms weeks, months or perhaps years after you were infected. In this case, the CDC recommends using the ELISA and Western-blot blood tests to determine whether you are infected. These tests, as noted above, are considered more reliable and accurate when performed at least a month after initial infection, although no test is 100% accurate.

If you have neurological symptoms or swollen joints your doctor may, in addition, recommend a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) test via a spinal tap or withdrawal of synovial fluid from an affected joint. This test amplifies the DNA of the spirochete and will usually indicate its presence.

Issues and Insights:

Misdiagnosis of Lyme disease: when not to order serologic tests

Executive Summary: 2nd Banbury Conference on the Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Straight Talk About the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Natural Killer Cell Counts are not Different Between Patients with Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome and Controls

Comprehensive Seroprofiling of sixteen B. burgdoreferi OspC: Implications for Lyme Disease Diagnostics design

The Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis: Guidelines from the Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network

Practice Parameter: Treatment of Nervous System Lyme Disease (an Evidence-based Review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

Lyme Disease: Current State of Knowledge

2-tired Antibody Testing for Early and Late Lyme Disease Using Only and Immunoglobulin G Blot with the Addition of a VlsE Band and the Second-tier Test

Rapid, Simple, Quantitative , and Highly Sensitive Antibody Detection for Lyme Disease

BBK07 Immunodominant Peptides as Serodiagnostic Markers of Lyme Disease

New Insights into the Tyrolean Iceman’s Origin and Phenotype as Inferred by Whole-Genome Sequencing

Misdiagnosis of Late Lyme Arthritis by Inappropriate Use of Synovial Fluid Borrelia burgdorferi Immunoblot Testing

Single-tier Testing with the C6 Peptide ELISA kit Compared with Two-tier Testing for Lyme Disease

High Frequency of False Positive IgM Immunoblasts for Borrelia burgdoreferi in Clinical

CXCL13 May Improve Diagnosis of Early Neuroborreliosis with Atypical Laboratory Findings: a Case Report

The Nervous System as Ectopic Germinal Center: CXCL13 and IgG in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

An Outer Surface Protein C (OspC) Peptide Derived from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto as a Target for the serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease

Laboratory Diagnostic Testing for Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

Performance of United States Serologic Assays in the Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis Acquired from Europe

Identification of OppA2 linear Epitopes as Serodiagnostic Markers for Lyme Disease

U.S. Healthcare Providers’ Experience with Lyme Disease and Other Tick-borne Diseases

A Concise Critical Analysis of Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Lyme

Development of a Metabolic Biosignature for the Detection of Early Lyme Disease

Updates and Recent Reports

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for Borrelia burgdorferi not Approved for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

A Critical Assessment of the New Culture Test for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

FDA Takes Steps to Help Insure the Reliability of New Diagnostic Tests

Several U.S. Senators Request Expedited Release of Draft Guidelines by the FDA on Regulation of Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs)

Can You Trust Lyme Disease Tests?

Limitations of Antibody-Based Diagnostic Tests for Lyme Disease

Announcements from the FDA and CDC on the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

CDC Issues Cautions Regarding Testing for Lyme Disease —

FDA-approved Diagnostic Tests

Treatment Guidelines

Recommended courses and duration of treatment for both early and late Lyme symptoms are shown in our Table of Recommended Antibiotics and Dosages (see also table footnotes).

Early treatment of LD (within the first few weeks after initial infection) is straightforward and almost always results in a full cure. Treatment begun after the first three weeks will also likely provide a cure, but the cure rate decreases the longer treatment is delayed.

Doxycycline, amoxicillin and ceftin are the three oral antibiotics most highly recommended for treatment of all but a few symptoms of LD. A recent study of Lyme arthritis in the New England Journal of Medicine indicates that a four-week course of oral doxycycline is just as effective in treating late LD, and much less expensive, than a similar course of intravenous Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) unless neurological or severe cardiac abnormalities are present. If these symptoms are present, the study recommends immediate intravenous (IV) treatment.

Treatment of late-Lyme patients can be more complicated. Usually LD in its later stages can be treated effectively, but individual variation in the rate of disease progression and response to treatment may, in some cases, render standard antibiotic treatment regimens ineffective. In a small percentage of late-Lyme patients, the disease may persist for many months or even years. These patients will experience slow improvement and resolution of their persisting symptoms following oral or IV treatment that eliminated the infection.

Although treatment approaches for patients with late-stage LD have become a matter of considerable debate, many physicians and the Infectious Disease Society of America recognize that, in some cases, several courses of either oral or IV (depending on the symptoms presented) antibiotic treatment may be indicated. However, long-term IV treatment courses (longer than the recommended 4-6 weeks) are not usually advised due to adverse side effects. While there is some speculation that long-term courses may be more effective than the recommended 4-6 weeks, there is currently no scientific evidence to support this assertion. Click here for an article from the New England Journal of Medicine which presents clinical recommendations in the treatment and prevention of early Lyme disease.

More Treatment Guidelines

The Clinical Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines

Practice Parameter: Treatment of Nervous System Lyme Disease (an Evidence-based review) : Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

The Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis: Guidelines from the Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network

SLyme Disease: Current State of Knowledge

Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Borreliosis: Guidelines and Consensus from Specialist Societies and Expert Groups in Europe and North America

EFNS Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of European Lyme Neuroborreliosis

CDC Issues Cautions Regarding Testing for Lyme Disease —

Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Recommendations on the Treatment of Lyme Disease Unanimously Approved by an Independent Review Panel

Independent Appraisal and Review of the ILADS 2004 Evidence-based Guidelines for the Management of Lyme Disease: General Information Reported by the Health Protection Agency, UK

The Epidemiology, Prevention, Investigation, and Treatment of Lyme Borreliosis in United Kingdom Patients: a Position Statement by the British Infection Association

Endorsement of IDSA Guidelines on Lyme Disease by the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (AMMI), Canada –Link it to this page and have it open in another window

Antibiotic Maximakism: Legislative Assaults on the Evidence-based Treatment of Lyme Disease

Research and Clinical Studies

Lyme neuroborreliosis in Children: a Prospective Study of Clinical Features, Prognosis , and Outcome

Lyme borreliosis: a European Perspective on Diagnosis and Clinical Management

Antibiotic Treatment of Animals Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi

SLyme Disease: Current State of Knowledge

Lyme Disease in Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Lyme Disease Serology in Amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS

Editor’s Note: Since ceftriaxone has been reported to have profound neuroprotective effects (Nature 433: 73-77, 2005) and is often used to treat Lyme disease with neurological complications, clinical studies are now in progress to assess its efficacy in the treatment of ALS.

IALSUntangled Update 1: Investigating a Bug (Lyme Disease) and a Drug (Iplex) on Behalf of People with ALS

Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Long-term Outcomes of Patients with Early Lyme Disease from a Lyme Disease –Hyperendemic Area

Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Lyme Disease: an Updated systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neurological Manifestations of Lyme Disease

A Case Revealing the Natural History of Untreated Lyme Disease

Editor’s Note: Although the data are not shown in the publication, the author confirms that the IgG Western blot was positive by the CDC criteria and showed the presence of 21,28,30,39,41,45,58,66, and 93 kDa bands.

Long-term Lyme Disease Antibiotic Therapy Beliefs Among New England Residents

On-going and Completed NIH-supported Clinical Trials on Lyme Disease

Musculoskeletal Features of Lyme Disease: Understanding the Pathogenesis of Clinical Findings Helps Make Appropriate Therapeutic Choices

Biodiversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Strains in Tissues of Lyme Disease Patients

Lyme Borreliosis

The Amber Theory of Lyme Arthritis: Initial Description and Clinical

The Nervous System as Ectopic Germinal Center: CXCL13 and IgG in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

ACritical Analysis of Treatment Trials of Rhesus macaques Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi Reveals Important Flaws in Experimental Design

Spirochete Antigens Persist Near Cartilage after Murine Borreliosis

A Novel Human Autoantigen, Endothelial Growth Factor, is a Target of T and B Cell Responses in Patients with Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease-Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Co-Infection-Impact of Case Definition on Co-Infected Rates and Illness

Differentiation of Reinfection from Relapse in Recurrent Lyme Disease

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Nucleic Acids after Antibiotic Treatment does not Confirm Viability

Reductions in Human Lyme Disease Risk Due to the Effects of Oral Vaccination on Tick-to-Mouse and Mouse-to-Tick Transmission

Common Misconceptions about Lyme Disease

Nervous System Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

Borrelia burgdorferi BbHtrA Degrades Host ECM Proteins and Stimulates Release of Inflammatory Cytokines in Vitro

Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi Induce Inflammatory Mediators and Apoptosis in Human Oligodendrocytes

A Systematic Review of Borrelia burgdorferi Morphologic Variants does not Support a Role in Chronic Lyme Disease

Evidence for Strain-specific Immunity in Patients Treated for Early Lyme Disease

Functional Outcomes in Patients with Borrelia burgdorferi Reinfection

Xenodiagnsosis to Detect Borrelia burgdorferi Infection: a First-in-human Study —

The Role of Eocosanoids in Experimental Lyme Arthritis

Oral Doxycycline for Lyme Neuroborreliosis with Symptoms of Encephalitis,, myelitis, Vasculitis, or Intracranial Hypertension

Death From Inappropriate Therapy for Lyme Disease

Natural Killer Cell Counts are not Different Between Patients with Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome and Controls

Implications of Gender in Chronic Lyme Disease

Death Due to Community-associated Clostridium difficile in a Woman Receiving Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy for Lyme Disease

Ceftriaxone-induced Hemolysis in a Child with Lyme Arthritis: a case for Antimicrobial Stewardship

Sympathetic Neural Hyperalgesia Edema Syndrome, a Frequent Cause of Pelvic Pain in Women, Mistaken for Lyme Disease with Chronic Fatigue

A Systematic Review of Borrelia burgdorferi Morphologic Variants does not Support a Role in Chronic Lyme Disease

Views and Facts About Chronic Lyme Disease from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

How to Evaluate the Claims About Cures and Treatments for Long-term, Chronic Conditions

Weighing the Claims about Cures and Treatments for Long-term Conditions

“I Don’t Know What to Believe…”

Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

Chronic Lyme Disease/Post-Lyme Disease Treatment Syndromes

News Articles and Commentaries

Chronic Lyme Disease: in Defense of the Scientific Enterprise

Chronic Lyme Disease: a Dubious Diagnosis

Doctors and Others Indicted in Lyme Disease Case

SLyme Disease: Current State of Knowledge

Ticks Aren’t the Only Parasites Living Off Patients in Borreliosis-prone Areas

Chronic Lyme Disease and other Medically Unexplained Syndromes

Four Patients Falsely Diagnosed with Lyme Disease win Verdicts Totaling $30 Million

Unorthodox Alternative Therapies Marketed to Treat Lyme Disease

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Publications

Misconceptions About Lyme Disease: Confusion Hiding Behind Ill-chosen Terminology

Practice Parameter: Treatment of Nervous System Lyme Disease (an Evidence-Based Review

A Critical Appraisal of Chronic Lyme Disease

Dispelling the Chronic Lyme Disease Myth

Perspectives on Chronic Lyme Disease

Psychiatric Co-morbidity and Other Psychological Factors in Patients with “Chronic Lyme Disease”

Subjective Symptoms after Treatment of Early Lyme Disease

Anti-neural Antibody Reactivity in Patients with a History of Lyme Borreliosis

Chronic Lyme Disease: the Controversies and the Science

The Pain of Chronic Lyme Disease: Moving the Discourse in a different Direction

Chronic Lyme: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges

Bullying Borrelia: When the Culture of Science is Under Attack

Neoplasms Misdiagnosed a “chronic Lyme Disease”

Long-term Assessment of Fibromyalgia in Patients with Culture-confirmed Lyme Disease

Long-term Assessment of Fatigue in Patients with Culture-confirmed Lyme Disease

Clinical Trials on the Efficacy of Extended Antibiotic Therapy

Two Controlled Trials of Antibiotic Treatment in Patients with Persistent Symptoms and a History of Lyme Disease

Editor’s Note: The above clinical trials were conducted under the following protocols that were approved by the NIAID Clinical Studies Group, the Institutional Review Board, the NIAID Biostatistics Group, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before the trails were conducted. To ensure complete compliance with the protocols, all procedures associated with the trials were carefully monitored by an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board (DSMB) that included several distinguished biostatisticians. Note that the protocols stipulated that an interim statistical analysis be performed when 100 subjects have been enrolled.

Clinical Protocol for the Seropositive Arm of the Trial

Clinical Protocol for the Seronegative Arm of the Trail

Study and Treatment of Post Lyme Disease (STOP-LD) : a Randomized Double Masked Clinical

Cognitive Function in Post-treatment Lyme Disease: Do Additional Antibiotics Help?

NA Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of repeated IV Antibiotic Therapy for Lyme Encephalopathy

Treatment Trials for Post-Lyme Disease Symptoms Revisited


Lyme Disease and Co-Infections

Chronic Co-infections in Patients with Chronic Lyme Disease: A Systematic Review

There is no Published Evidence Supporting the Diagnosis of Chronic Lyme Disease, Atypical Tick-borne Co-infections in Patients Diagnosed with Chronic Lyme Disease

The Results of European Studies Show That Patients with Early Lyme Disease are Rarely Co-infected with Other Tick-transmitted Agents



Resurrecting the “yuppie’ Vaccine”

Popular Antibiotics May Carry Serious Side Effects


Commentaries and Reviews on Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease: the Great Controversy

Autism-Lyme Correlation Debunked

Nervous System Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and

An Open Letter to the Editors of the Poughkeepsie Journal: In Defense of the Scientific Enterprise

CDC Reports 300,000 Treated Cases of Lyme Disease Each Year, Although Only 30,000 Cases are Actually Reported

Study Finds Cancer Diagnosis Delayed Because of Chronic Lyme Disease Misdiagnosis

Political Science: Chronic Lyme Disease

Chronic Coinfections in Patients with Chronic Lyme Disease: a Systematic Review

Ending the Lyme Disease Wars

Chronic Lyme Disease: In Defense of the Scientific Enterprise

Lyme Borreliosis is not Sexually Transmitted

The Pain of Chronic Lyme Disease: Moving the Discourse in a Different Direction

What Do Experts Recommend about the Treatment of Lyme Disease?

Borrelia burgdorferi vs Treponema pallidum- what’s in a name?

Understanding Chronic Pain

Misinformation on Lyme Disease

  • Does Borrelia burgdorferi produce a neurotoxin ?
  • Did Lyme disease originate in the eastern U.S. from Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks that escaped from a laboratory at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center where scientists were conducting top-secret biological warfare experiments?
  • Does Lyme disease occur in every State in the continental United States?
  • Is there a causal relationship between Lyme disease and amylotropic lateral sclerosis?
  • Does Lyme disease induce autism in children?
  • Is Lyme disease sexually transmitted?
  • Does Lyme disease affect the brain and nervous system?
  • Are serological tests of any value in the diagnosis of Lyme disease?
  • Can Lyme disease be transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, horse flies, and deer flies?
  • Do Borrelia burgdorferi form cysts that protect them from being attacked and eliminated by antibiotics and host immune defense mechanisms?
  • Does Lyme disease cause congenital birth defects?
  • Are ticks that transmit Lyme disease also likely to be co-infected with Bartonella henselae?
  • Is Lyme disease transmitted to humans by Lone Star Ticks?
  • Is Lyme disease a lethal, life-threatening infection?
  • Are the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease identical to those of multiple sclerosis (MS)?
  • What diagnostic tests and criteria are best for diagnosing Lyme Disease?
  • Some patients who believe that they have chronic Lyme disease claim that prolonged treatment with antibiotics relieves their symptoms and makes them feel better. Does this mean that these beneficial effects must be due to the elimination of a chronic borrelial infection?
  • What are some of the most common misconceptions about Lyme disease?
  • Is hyperbaric oxygen therapy beneficial for the treatment of chronic Lyme disease?

How To Find A Physician to Treat Lyme Disease

“Castle Connolly Best Doctors” provides an excellent way to find a local physician who is board certified in the specialty of infectious diseases. Select “Infectious Diseases” as the specialty, and then give your zip code (or city), as well as your State. In some cases, the physician has elected not to post his/her name and address on this web site; you then may have to consult your local telephone directory to get that information.

When you contact the physician you have selected, you might ask him/her about their experience in diagnosing and treating Lyme disease — or other tick-borne infections — and whether he/she follows the guidelines developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) for the treatment of Lyme disease.

The IDSA guidelines, which are posted on the ALDF website, are almost universally accepted by experts on Lyme disease, and are in agreement with those of: the European Federation of Neurological Societies; the European Union of Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis; the American Academy of Neurology; the Canadian Public Health Network; and, the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology. They also are in agreement with recommendations made by expert panels from 10 European countries, i.e., The Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden, and Switzerland. None of these organizations or expert panels, as well as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) or the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends extended antibiotic therapy for the treatment of a condition known as “chronic Lyme disease”.

Prevention & Control

Larval and nymphal deer ticks often hide in shady, moist ground litter, but adults can often be found above the ground clinging to tall grass, brush, and shrubs. They also inhabit lawns and gardens, especially at the edges of woodlands and around old stone walls where deer and white-footed mice, the ticks’ preferred hosts, thrive. Within the endemic range of B. burgdorferi (the spirochete that infects the deer tick and causes LD), no natural, vegetated area can be considered completely free of infected ticks.

Deer ticks cannot jump or fly, and do not drop from above onto a passing animal. Potential hosts (which include all wild birds and mammals, domestic animals, and humans) acquire ticks only by direct contact with them. Once a tick latches onto human skin it generally climbs upward until it reaches a protected or creased area, often the back of the knee, groin, navel, armpit, ears, or nape of the neck. It then begins the process of inserting its mouthparts into the skin until it reaches the blood supply.

In tick-infested areas, the best precaution against LD is to avoid contact with soil, leaf litter and vegetation as much as possible. However, if you garden, hike, camp, hunt, work outdoors or otherwise spend time in woods, brush or overgrown fields, you should use a combination of precautions to dramatically reduce your chances of getting Lyme disease:

How To Remove A Tick

First, using color and size as indicators, learn how to distinguish between:

Deer tick larva, nymph and adult
Deer tick larva (top),
nymph (right) and adult (left).
  • deer tick* nymphs and adults
  • deer ticks and two other common tick species – dog ticks and Lone Star ticks (neither of which is known to transmit Lyme disease)*Deer ticks are found east of the Rockies; their look-alike close relatives, the western black-legged ticks, are found and can transmit Lyme disease west of the Rockies.


dog tick.Dog tick.
lone star tick.
Lone star tick.

Then, when spending time outdoors, make these easy precautions part of your routine:

  • Wear enclosed shoes and light-colored clothing with a tight weave to spot ticks easily
  • Scan clothes and any exposed skin frequently for ticks while outdoors
  • Stay on cleared, well-traveled trails
  • Use insect repellant containing DEET (Diethyl-meta-toluamide) on skin or clothes if you intend to go off-trail or into overgrown areas
  • Avoid sitting directly on the ground or on stone walls (havens for ticks and their hosts)
  • Keep long hair tied back, especially when gardening
  • Do a final, full-body tick-check at the end of the day (also check children and pets)

When taking the above precautions, consider these important facts:

  • If you tuck long pants into socks and shirts into pants, be aware that ticks that contact your clothes will climb upward in search of exposed skin. This means they may climb to hidden areas of the head and neck if not intercepted first; spot-check clothes frequently.
  • Clothes can be sprayed with either DEET or Permethrin. Only DEET can be used on exposed skin, but never in high concentrations; follow the manufacturer’s directions.
  • Upon returning home, clothes can be spun in the dryer for 20 minutes to kill any unseen ticks
  • A shower and shampoo may help to remove crawling ticks, but will not remove attached ticks. Inspect yourself and your children carefully after a shower. Keep in mind that nymphal deer ticks are the size of poppy seeds; adult deer ticks are the size of apple seeds.

Any contact with vegetation, even playing in the yard, can result in exposure to ticks, so careful daily self-inspection is necessary whenever you engage in outdoor activities and the temperature exceeds 45° F (the temperature above which deer ticks are active). Frequent tick checks should be followed by a systematic, whole-body examination each night before going to bed. Performed consistently, this ritual is perhaps the single most effective current method for prevention of Lyme disease.

If you DO find a tick attached to your skin, there is no need to panic. Not all ticks are infected, and studies of infected deer ticks have shown that they begin transmitting Lyme disease an average of 36 to 48 hours after attachment.Therefore, your chances of contracting LD are greatly reduced if you remove a tick within the first 48 hours. Remember, too, that nearly all of early diagnosed Lyme disease cases are easily treated and cured.

To remove a tick, follow these steps:

  1. Using a pair of pointed precision* tweezers, grasp the tick by the head or mouthparts right where they enter the skin. DO NOT grasp the tick by the body.
  2. Without jerking, pull firmly and steadily directly outward. DO NOT twist the tick out or apply petroleum jelly, a hot match, alcohol or any other irritant to the tick in an attempt to get it to back out.
  3. Place the tick in a vial or jar of alcohol to kill it.
  4. Clean the bite wound with disinfectant.*Keep in mind that certain types of fine-pointed tweezers, especially those that are etched, or rasped, at the tips, may not be effective in removing nymphal deer ticks. Choose unrasped fine-pointed tweezers whose tips align tightly when pressed firmly together.

Then, monitor the site of the bite for the appearance of a rash beginning 3 to 30 days after the bite. At the same time, learn about the other early symptoms of Lyme disease and watch to see if they appear in about the same timeframe. If a rash or other early symptoms develop, see a physician immediately.

Finally, prevention is not limited to personal precautions. Those who enjoy spending time in their yards can reduce the tick population around the home by:

  • keeping lawns mowed and edges trimmed
  • clearing brush, leaf litter and tall grass around houses and at the edges of gardens and open stone walls
  • stacking woodpiles neatly in a dry location and preferably off the ground
  • clearing all leaf litter (including the remains of perennials) out of the garden in the fall
  • having a licensed professional spray the residential environment (only the areas frequented by humans) with an insecticide in late May (to control nymphs) and optionally in September (to control adults).

[ PDF Version of Article]


The 4-Poster as an environmental control system

Please note that the ALDF does not sell or distribute the 4-poster bait system.

For additional information please contact:
Dandux Outdoors
3451 Ellicott Center Drive
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Phone: 800-933-2638 (extension: #481)
FAX: 410-461-2987

How to Prevent Tick Bites

Tick Repellants for Use on Skin- All About DEET

Tick Repellants for Use on Pets

Tick Repellants for Use on Clothing

Managing Ticks on Your Property